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Von den B. Ges. sind 2 rein schwedisch, 2 gemischt und 3 nebst allen Lostr. ehstnisch. Die Bevölkerung bestand aus 18 m. 21 w. Schweden, 32 m. 41 w. Seit w: übersetzen im schwedisch-deutschen Online-Wörterbuch. Einträge und Gesucht wurde "Seit w" im deutsch-schwedischen Online- Wörterbuch. Das Königreich Schweden (schwedisch Konungariket Sverige Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel anhören oder einfach Sverige Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel anhören) ist .

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Successionsordningen , the Freedom of the Press Act Swedish: The public sector in Sweden is divided into two parts: Kommunallagen passed by the Riksdag.

Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and King Carl XVI Gustaf is the head of state , but the role of the monarch is limited to ceremonial and representative functions.

Legislative power is vested in the unicameral Riksdag with members. General elections are held every four years, on the second Sunday of September.

Legislation may be initiated by the Government or by members of the Riksdag. Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to a four-year term.

The internal workings of the Riksdag is, in addition to the Instrument of Government, regulated by the Riksdag Act Swedish: Regeringen operates as a collegial body with collective responsibility and consists of the Prime Minister — appointed and dismissed by the Speaker of the Riksdag following an actual vote in the Riksdag before an appointment can be made — and other cabinet ministers Swedish: Most of the State administrative authorities Swedish: A unique feature of Swedish State administration is that individual cabinet ministers do not bear any individual ministerial responsibility for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; as the director-generals and other heads of government agencies reports directly to the Government as a whole; and individual ministers are prohibited to interfere; thus the origin of the pejorative in Swedish political parlance term ministerstyre English: The Judiciary is independent from the Riksdag, Government and other State administrative authorities.

The Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading role in Swedish politics since , after the Reformists had confirmed their strength and the left-wing revolutionaries formed their own party.

After , most governments have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only five general elections since World War II— , , , and —have given the assembled bloc of centre-right parties enough seats in the Riksdag to form a government.

In the election, while the Greens lost their seats, two new parties gained seats for the first time: The election saw the return of the Greens and the demise of New Democracy.

It was not until elections in that an eighth party, the Sweden Democrats , gained Riksdag seats. In the elections to the European Parliament , parties who have failed to pass the Riksdag threshold have managed to gain representation at that venue: In the general election the Moderate Party formed the centre-right Alliance for Sweden bloc and won a majority of the Riksdag seats.

In the general election the Alliance contended against a unified left block consisting of the Social Democrats, the Greens and the Left Party.

Nevertheless, neither the Alliance, nor the left block, chose to form a coalition with the Sweden Democrats. The outcome of the general election resulted in the attainment of more seats by the three centre-left parties in comparison to the centre-right Alliance for Sweden, with the two blocs receiving and seats respectively.

Election turnout in Sweden has always been high by international comparison. Although it declined in recent decades, the latest elections saw an increase in voter turnout Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 county councils landsting and municipalities kommuner.

County councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government. Health care, public transport and certain cultural institutions are administered by county councils.

Preschools, primary and secondary schooling, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities.

Gotland is a special case of being a county council with only one municipality and the functions of county council and municipality are performed by the same organisation.

Municipal and county council government in Sweden is similar to city commission and cabinet-style council government.

Both levels have legislative assemblies municipal councils and county council assemblies of between 31 and members always an uneven number that are elected from party-list proportional representation at the general election which are held every four years in conjunction with the national parliamentary elections.

These have no official political responsibilities but are traditional subdivisions of the Church of Sweden and still have some importance as census districts for census-taking and elections.

Each county administrative boards is led by a County Governor Swedish: The list of previous officeholders for the counties stretches back, in most cases, to when the counties were created by Lord High Chancellor Count Axel Oxenstierna.

The main responsibility of the County Administrative Board is to co-ordinate the development of the county in line with goals set by the Riksdag and Government.

There are older historical divisions, primarily the twenty-five provinces and three lands, which still retain cultural significance. The actual age of the kingdom of Sweden is unknown.

In the first case, Svealand was first mentioned as having one single ruler in the year 98 by Tacitus, but it is almost impossible to know for how long it had been this way.

These events are often described as the consolidation of Sweden , although substantial areas were conquered and incorporated later. Earlier kings, for which no reliable historical sources exist, can be read about in mythical kings of Sweden and semi-legendary kings of Sweden.

Many of these kings are only mentioned in various saga and blend with Norse mythology. Up until the beginning of the s, all laws in Sweden were introduced with the words, "We, the king of Sweden, of the Goths and Wends".

This title was used up until The term riksdag was used for the first time in the s, although the first meeting where representatives of different social groups were called to discuss and determine affairs affecting the country as a whole took place as early as , in the town of Arboga.

As a reaction to the failed Great Northern War, a parliamentary system was introduced in , followed by three different flavours of constitutional monarchy in , and , the latter granting several civil liberties.

In Sweden became a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament, with the First Chamber indirectly elected by local governments, and the Second Chamber directly elected in national elections every four years.

In the parliament became unicameral. Legislative power was symbolically shared between the King and the Riksdag until Swedish taxation is controlled by the Riksdag.

Sweden is currently leading the EU in statistics measuring equality in the political system and equality in the education system.

Some Swedish political figures have become known worldwide, among these are: The courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems: There are also a number of special courts, which will hear a narrower set of cases, as set down by legislation.

While independent in their rulings, some of these courts are operated as divisions within courts of the general or general administrative courts.

The Supreme Court of Sweden Swedish: Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent.

The Supreme Court consists of 16 Justices Swedish: According to a victimisation survey of 1, residents in , Sweden has above-average crime rates compared to other EU countries.

Sweden has high or above-average levels of assaults, sexual assaults, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. Sweden has low levels of burglary, car theft and drug problems.

Bribe seeking is rare. A mid-November news report announced that four prisons in Sweden were closed during the year due to a significant drop in the number of inmates.

Throughout the 20th century, Swedish foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment in peacetime and neutrality in wartime. This has sometimes been disputed since in effect Sweden allowed in select cases the Nazi regime to use its railroad system to transport troops and goods, [57] [59] especially iron ore from mines in northern Sweden, which was vital to the German war machine.

During the early Cold War era, Sweden combined its policy of non-alignment and a low profile in international affairs with a security policy based on strong national defence.

Later investigations revealed that the plane was actually gathering information for NATO. Beginning in the late s, Sweden attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations.

It involved itself significantly in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the Third World.

On 27 October , a Whiskey-class submarine U from the Soviet Union ran aground close to the naval base at Karlskrona in the southern part of the country.

Research has never clearly established whether the submarine ended up on the shoals through a navigational mistake or if an enemy committed espionage against Swedish military potential.

The incident triggered a diplomatic crisis between Sweden and the Soviet Union. Following the assassination of Olof Palme and with the end of the Cold War, Sweden has adopted a more traditional foreign policy approach.

Nevertheless, the country remains active in peace keeping missions and maintains a considerable foreign aid budget. The law is enforced in Sweden by several government entities.

The Swedish police is a Government agency concerned with police matters. The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war.

The armed forces are divided into Army , Air Force and Navy. Up to the King was pro forma Commander-in-Chief , but in reality it was clearly understood all through the 20th century that the Monarch would have no active role as a military leader.

Until the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of military service were conscripted.

In recent years, the number of conscripted males has shrunk dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly. Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely those otherwise most fit for service.

All soldiers serving abroad must by law be volunteers. In the total number of conscripts was 45, By it was down to 15, On 1 July Sweden stopped routine conscription, switching to an all volunteer force unless otherwise required for defence readiness.

The total forces gathered would consist of about 60, men. This could be compared with the s before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1,, men.

However, on 11 December , due to tensions in the Baltic area, the Swedish Government reintroduced one part of the Swedish conscription system, refresher training.

The first recruits will begin their training in As the law now is gender neutral, both men and women may have to service. Sweden is the sixteenth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP gross domestic product per capita and a high standard of living is experienced by its citizens.

Sweden is an export-oriented mixed economy. Timber, hydropower and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade.

Sweden is the ninth-largest arms exporter in the world. The country ranks among the highest for telephone and Internet access penetration.

Both the prominent role of collective bargaining and the way in which the high rate of coverage is achieved reflect the dominance of self-regulation regulation by the labour market parties themselves over state regulation in Swedish industrial relations.

In and around Stockholm and Scania, two of the more densely populated regions of Sweden, the income Gini coefficient is between 0.

In terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterised by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector; an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector ; and by international standards, a large public service sector.

Large organisations, both in manufacturing and services, dominate the Swedish economy. The Swedish government is seeking to reduce its costs through decreased sick leave hours and increased efficiency.

Total tax collected by Sweden as a percentage of its GDP peaked at Overall, GDP growth has been fast since reforms—especially those in manufacturing—were enacted in the early s.

Sweden is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum in its Global Competitiveness Report — The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business—talent, technology and tolerance.

Sweden maintains its own currency, the Swedish krona SEK , a result of the Swedes having rejected the euro in a referendum. According to the Economic Survey of Sweden by the OECD, the average inflation in Sweden has been one of the lowest among European countries since the mids, largely because of deregulation and quick utilisation of globalisation.

Financial deregulation in the s impacted adversely on the property market, leading to a bubble and eventually a crash in the early s.

Commercial property prices fell by up to two thirds, resulting in two Swedish banks having to be taken over by the government.

In the following two decades the property sector strengthened. By , legislators, economists and the IMF were again warning of a bubble with residential property prices soaring and the level of personal mortgage debt expanding.

At the same time, the use of biofuels , peat etc. Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin of 6 TWh. Since then, electricity has been generated mostly from hydropower and nuclear power.

The use of nuclear power has been limited, however. Voters rejected right-hand traffic in , but after the Riksdag passed legislation in changeover took place on 3 September , known in Swedish as Dagen H.

The Stockholm metro is the only underground system in Sweden and serves the city of Stockholm via stations. The rail transport market is privatised, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, the largest operators are still owned by state.

The counties have financing, ticket and marketing responsibility for local trains. For other trains the operators handle tickets and marketing themselves.

Most of the railways are owned and operated by Trafikverket. A new tram line is set to open in Lund in The largest airports include Stockholm—Arlanda Airport The most used airport for a large part of Southern Sweden is Kastrup or Copenhagen Airport which is located only 12 minutes by train from the closest Swedish railway station, Hyllie.

Copenhagen Airport also is the largest international airport in Scandinavia and Finland. Sweden also has a number of car ferry connections to several neighbouring countries.

Trelleborg is the busiest ferry port in Sweden in terms of weight transported by lorry. There are over seventy departures a day each way; during peak times, a ferry departs every fifteen minutes.

Sweden has two domestic ferry lines with large vessels, both connecting Gotland with the mainland. Sweden has one of the most highly developed welfare states in the world.

A series of successive social reforms transformed the country into one of the most equal and developed on earth. The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Swedes achieving unprecedented levels of social mobility and quality of life—to this day Sweden consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development—far ahead of some wealthier countries for example the United States.

Sweden began slowing the expansion of the welfare state in the s, and even trimming it back. Sweden has recently been relatively quick to adopt neoliberal policies, such as privatization , financialization and deregulation , [] [] compared to countries such as France.

Also since the mids, Sweden has had the fastest growth in inequality of any developed nation, according to the OECD.

This has largely been attributed to the reduction in state benefits and a shift toward the privatisation of public services.

According to Barbro Sorman, an activist of the opposition Left Party, "The rich are getting richer, and the poor are getting poorer.

Sweden is starting to look like the USA. Sweden adopted free market agricultural policies in Since the s, the agricultural sector had been subject to price controls.

In June , the Riksdag voted for a new agricultural policy marking a significant shift away from price controls. As a result, food prices fell somewhat.

However, the liberalisations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened. Since the late s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota as percentage of GDP in the industrialised world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries.

Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e. In [update] , total tax revenue was State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more than in most Western countries.

Spending on transfers is also high. In and , 69 per cent of the employed workers is organised in trade unions. Sweden has a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: The unemployment rate was 7.

Previously, technical progress had mainly come from mainland Europe. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands.

Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes. Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world.

The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground.

Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.

Swedish inventors held 47, patents in the United States in [update] , according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

As a nation, only ten other countries hold more patents than Sweden. Combined, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate over 3.

As a percentage of GDP, the Swedish government spends the most of any nation on research and development. Both facilities have strong implications on material research.

Every Swedish resident receives a state pension. Swedish Pensions Agency is responsible for pensions. People who have worked in Sweden, but relocated to another country, can also receive the Swedish pension.

There are several types of pensions in Sweden: A person can receive a combination of the various types of pensions. The total resident population of Sweden was 10,, on 30 November The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated.

Between and , approximately 1. There are more than 4. There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around 3,, The official language of Sweden is Swedish, [7] [8] a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian , but differing in pronunciation and orthography.

Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than Norwegians.

The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish. The dialects spoken in Scania , the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it.

However, no official statistics are kept on language use. Along with Finnish, four other minority languages are also recognised: In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier.

English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as , and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late s.

Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include but are not limited to German, French and Spanish.

Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers. Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the three continental Scandinavian languages Swedish speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Norway or Denmark.

With Christianisation in the 11th century, the laws of the country changed, forbidding worship of other deities until the late 19th century.

Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the Uppsala Synod of , and it became the official religion. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran orthodoxy , small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen , the Moravian Church and French Huguenots played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.

With religious liberalisations in the late 18th century believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism , were allowed to live and work freely in the country.

However, until it remained illegal for Lutherans to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churches , and, towards the end of the century, secularism , leading many to distance themselves from church rituals.

Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of , but only under the provision of entering another Christian denomination.

The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the Law on Freedom of religion in In , the Church of Sweden was disestablished.

Sweden was the second Nordic country to disestablish its state church after Finland did so in the Church Act of At the end of , Since , only children that are christened become members.

Some , Swedes are today members of various Evangelical Protestant free churches where congregation attendance is much higher , and due to recent immigration, there are now some , Eastern Orthodox Christians and 92, Roman Catholics living in Sweden.

The first Muslim congregation was established in , when a small contingent of Tatars migrated from Finland. Further immigration from North Africa and the Middle East have brought the estimated Muslim population to , According to the Eurobarometer Poll , [].

Sociology professor Phil Zuckerman claims that Swedes, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term atheist , preferring to call themselves Christians while being content with remaining in the Church of Sweden.

Healthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality.

It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. The health care is governed by the 21 landsting of Sweden and is mainly funded by taxes, with nominal fees for patients.

Children aged 1—5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten Swedish: Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school.

The school system is largely financed by taxes. The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally [] by introducing education vouchers in as one of the first countries in the world after the Netherlands.

Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get. School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, and providing breakfast is also encouraged.

There are a number of different universities and colleges in Sweden , the oldest and largest of which are situated in Uppsala , Lund , Gothenburg and Stockholm.

The large influx of immigrants to Swedish schools has been cited as a significant part of the reason why Sweden has dropped more than any other European country in the international PISA rankings.

Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of Sweden , and in recent centuries the country has been transformed from a nation of net emigration, ending after World War I, to a nation of net immigration, from World War II onwards.

The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility , crime, and voting behaviour.

There are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden because the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity.

In addition, , persons were born in Sweden to two parents born abroad and another , persons had one parent born abroad with the other parent born in Sweden.

According to Eurostat , in , there were 1. Of these, , 9. In , immigration reached its highest level since records began, with , people emigrating to Sweden.

The ten largest groups of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in were from: The total immigration to Sweden for will be roughly people, and after that individuals every year.

In total seven Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes. In the s—s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationally noted people within cinema.

Throughout the s and s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the " sexual revolution ", with gender equality having particularly been promoted.

The image of "hot love and cold people" emerged. Sexual liberalism was seen as part of modernisation process that by breaking down traditional borders would lead to the emancipation of natural forces and desires.

Since 1 May , Sweden repealed its "registered partnership" laws and fully replaced them with gender-neutral marriage , [] Sweden also offers domestic partnerships for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples.

Cohabitation sammanboende by couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread. Recently, Sweden is experiencing a baby boom.

Historical re-creations of Norse music have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites. The instruments used were the lur a sort of trumpet , simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums.

Sweden has a significant folk-music scene. There is Sami music, called the joik , which is a type of chant which is part of the traditional Sami animistic spirituality.

Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition. Out of a population of 9. In , with over million dollars in revenue, Sweden was the third-largest music exporter in the world and surpassed only by the US and the UK.

Sweden has also become known for a large number of heavy metal bands, including Bathory , Opeth , Amon Amarth and Ghost. The renowned neo-classical power metal guitarist Yngwie Malmsteen is also from Sweden.

In the mids, Martin came back with a more rock-tinged sound and produced major hits with artists such as Kelly Clarkson , Pink and Katy Perry.

Sweden is one of the most successful competing nations at the Eurovision Song Contest , with a total of six victories in the contest , , , , and , right behind Ireland who have seven wins.

In the Eurovision Song Contest each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio; however, no restriction on the nationality of the songwriter or the artist exists which has resulted in countries being represented by songwriters and artist who are not nationals of that country.

In recent years Swedish songwriters have been involved in the writing — entirely or partly — of entries from several countries in addition to Sweden.

For instance, in the edition of Eurovision Song Contest, Swedish songwriters and producers featured in 10 out of the 42 songs that qualified for the contest; in , the numbers were 7 songs out of the 39 songs in the contest; in , 7 songs out of 37 songs in the contest; in , 8 songs out of 40 songs in the contest; in , 12 songs out of 42 songs in the contest.

Sweden has a rather lively jazz scene. During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences.

Before the 13th century almost all buildings were made of timber, but a shift began towards stone. Early Swedish stone buildings are the Romanesque churches on the country side.

As so happens, many of them were built in Scania and are in effect Danish churches. The Skara Cathedral is of bricks from the 14th century, and the Uppsala Cathedral in the 15th.

Around Sweden was out of the Middle Ages and united under King Gustav Vasa, who immediately initiated grand mansions, castles and fortresses to be built.

Some of the more magnificent include the Kalmar fortress, the Gripsholm Castle and the one at Vadstena. In the next two centuries, Sweden was designated by Baroque architecture and later the rococo.

Notable projects from that time include the city Karlskrona, which has now also been declared a World Heritage Site and the Drottningholm Palace.

The style came to dominate in the following decades. Some notable projects of this kind were the Million Programme , offering affordable living in large apartment complexes.

Swedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper. The two largest evening tabloids are Aftonbladet social democratic and Expressen liberal.

The ad-financed, free international morning paper, Metro International , was founded in Stockholm, Sweden. The public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for a long time in Sweden.

Licence funded radio broadcasts started in A second radio network was started in and a third opened in response to pirate radio stations.

Non-profit community radio was allowed in and in commercial local radio started. The licence-funded television service was officially launched in A second channel, TV2 , was launched in These two channels operated by Sveriges Television since the late s held a monopoly until the s when cable and satellite television became available.

The first Swedish language satellite service was TV3 which started broadcasting from London in In the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the terrestrial network.

TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts in , becoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country.

Around half the population are connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Sweden started in and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in With the conversion of the land to Christianity around AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages , during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin.

Therefore, there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardised in the 16th century, a standardisation largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible.

With improved education and the freedom brought by secularisation , the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further.

Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm 17th century , who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren 18th century , the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman late 18th century , the first writer of burlesque ballads; and August Strindberg late 19th century , a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame.

In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist Henning Mankell and the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou.

In , the second best-selling fiction author in the world was Stieg Larsson , whose Millennium series of crime novels is being published posthumously to critical acclaim.

Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidays , Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition.

The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia , 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season.

Furthermore, there are official flag day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar. Swedish cuisine, like that of the other Scandinavian countries Denmark , Norway and Finland , was traditionally simple.

Fish particularly herring , meat, potatoes and dairy products played prominent roles. Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverage , and the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance.

The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into several contemporary variants. Swedish traditional dishes, some of which are many hundreds of years old, others perhaps a century or less, are still a very important part of Swedish everyday meals, in spite of the fact that modern-day Swedish cuisine adopts many international dishes.

Swedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years. These companies, however, are composed largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and America, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbours.

Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating in organised sporting activities. The two main spectator sports are football and ice hockey.

Second to football, horse sports have the highest number of practitioners who are mostly women. Three Crowns ; the national symbol of Sweden , is regarded as one of the best in the world.

The team has won the World Championships nine times, placing them third in the all-time medal count. Tre Kronor also won Olympic gold medals in and In , Tre Kronor became the first national hockey team to win both the Olympic and world championships in the same year.

The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in , and third twice, in and Due to its northerly latitude numerous world class winter sports athletes have come from Sweden.

The following are links to international rankings of Sweden from selected research institutes and foundations including economic output and various composite indices.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Sweden disambiguation. For other uses of "Swedish" or the Swedish word "svensk a ", see Swedish disambiguation.

Greater coat of arms. Du gamla, Du fria [b] Thou ancient, thou free. Show map of Europe. The Swedish Sign Language also has a special status. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

This section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.

May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Modernization of Sweden and Swedish emigration to the United States.

History of Sweden —present. Counties of Sweden and Municipalities of Sweden. Subdivisions of Sweden and National Areas of Sweden.

Foreign relations of Sweden. Swedish Armed Forces and Law enforcement in Sweden. Nordic model and Social welfare in Sweden.

Social security in Sweden. Demographics of Sweden and Swedes. Largest cities or towns in Sweden "Kommungruppsindelning ". Swedish language and Languages of Sweden.

Public holidays in Sweden. Sweden portal Arctic portal. Royal Court of Sweden. Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 14 October United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 10 November Retrieved 15 July Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 9 June Moreover, people born in Sweden may not be ethnic Swedes.

As the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity , there are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden.

Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 10 June Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 27 August Archived from the original on 10 December Svensk etymologisk ordbok [ Swedish etymological dictionary ] in Swedish.

A History of the Vikings. Oxford University Press, University of Minnesota Press. The New Cambridge Medieval History. Om svenskarnes inflyttningar till Finland.

Finlands svenska historia 1. Bd 30 in Swedish New, rev. Retrieved 17 September Europe in the Middle Ages. The Emergence of European Civilization.

Retrieved 25 August Library of Congress Country Studies. Finding the family in medieval and early modern Scotland.

Politics and Policies in Social Democratic Scandinavia. Though Denmark, where industrialization had begun in the s, was reasonably prosperous by the end of the nineteenth century, both Sweden and Norway were terribly poor.

Only the safety valve of mass emigration to America prevented famine and rebellion. In economic and social terms the eighteenth century was more a transitional than a revolutionary period.

Sweden was, in light of contemporary Western European standards, a relatively poor but stable country. Social and economic conditions ". Throughout Swedish history the countryside has taken an unusually important role in comparison with other European states.

Challenges to the Swedish Welfare State. Now, the Seven and a Half". Der Druck und die Bewegung der Eismassen hat die Landschaft in vielen Teilen wesentlich mitgestaltet.

Ein auch heute noch wichtiger Faktor ist die postglaziale Landhebung. Da sich Schweden zwischen dem Hier gibt es eine einzigartige Mischung, unter anderem mit Pflanzen, die sonst in Europa nur im Balkanraum vorkommen.

In der Jagdsaison im Herbst wird bis zu einem Viertel des Elchbestands erlegt. Schweden richtete als erstes Land in Europa Nationalparks ein.

Das Durchschnittsalter betrug 41,2 Jahre. Die Mehrheit der Einwohner sind ethnische Schweden. Es gibt heute insgesamt etwa Eine andere Minderheit sind die heute etwa Die traditionelle Rentierzucht spielt bis heute eine Rolle.

Die samischen Sprachen wurden im Jahr zu anerkannten Minderheitensprachen. Die schwedische Sprache ist seit dem 1. Juli nicht nur de facto , sondern auch gesetzliche Amtssprache.

Zwischen und haben etwa Die orthodoxen und orientalisch-orthodoxen Kirchen haben etwa Daneben gibt es in Schweden etwa Das schwedische Bildungssystem umfasst vier Teilbereiche: Doch bis ins Durch Erbschaft und Heirat hatte sie zuvor die norwegische und schwedische Krone erlangt.

Im Jahr wurde Gustav I. Viele Traditionen, die im deutschen Protestantismus aufgehoben werden sollten, wurden beibehalten. Vor allem das Schweden musste daraufhin seine Besitzungen im Baltikum abgeben.

Sie war bis ins Jahrhundert hinein jedoch nie eine offizielle politische Doktrin , sondern mehr Ausdruck pragmatischer Politik. Parallel mit dem Ausbau des Sozialsystems arbeitete man auch an einer Verfassungsreform, die in den er Jahren durch mehrere Grundgesetze schrittweise verwirklicht wurde siehe Verfassung von Schweden.

November der Internationalen Gemeinschaft bei. Innenpolitisch begegnete er mehreren Schwierigkeiten. Regierung und Opposition erhielten je Mandate.

Oft wurden Abstimmungen im Reichstag daher per Losentscheid entschieden. Nach der Wahlniederlage der Sozialdemokraten am Ein politischer Machtwechsel vollzog sich mit dem Wahlverlust der Sozialdemokraten.

Bei der Reichstagswahl gewannen die Sozialdemokraten erneut und Ingvar Carlsson bildete eine Minderheitsregierung. Schweden ist eine parlamentarisch-demokratische Monarchie.

Das Einkammer-Parlament, der Reichstag schwed. Schweden ist in 21 Provinzen schwed. Die kommunale Selbstverwaltung geschieht auf zwei Ebenen: Nachdem der Haushaltsentwurf der Regierung am 3.

Dezember , also drei Monate nach der letzten Parlamentswahl auszurufenden Neuwahlen fanden daher nicht statt. Diese lehnen sich teilweise an die historischen Provinzen landskap an, in die das Reich bis eingeteilt war, was sich in der Namensgebung vieler Provinzen spiegelt.

Die heutigen Provinzen sind: Ebenfalls Regionen gebildet haben Halland und Gotland. Die Gemeinden stellen die Verwaltungseinheit unter den Provinziallandtagen dar.

In Schweden gibt es Gemeinden. Als solche untersteht sie direkt der schwedischen Regierung und nicht, wie in vielen anderen Staaten, dem Verteidigungsminister.

Die elf- bis siebzehnmonatige Wehrpflicht wurde am 1. Juli ausgesetzt, nachdem seit Ende des Kalten Krieges bereits immer weniger Soldaten eingezogen wurden Juli bis zum Der Gesamtbesitz an Immobilien, Aktien und Bargeld belief sich auf insgesamt 1.

Elektrische Energie wird in Schweden vor allem durch erneuerbare Energien und Kernenergie produziert: Dieser Ausstiegsplan wurde nur teilweise vollzogen.

Juli und den zweiten vor dem 1. Juli stillzulegen, allerdings unter der Voraussetzung, dass deren Stromproduktion kompensiert werden kann.

Der Verzicht auf die Nutzung der Kernenergie wird in Schweden kontrovers diskutiert. Die Leistung der drei noch in Betrieb befindlichen Kernkraftwerke ist in den letzten Jahren erheblich gesteigert worden.

Die Betreiber von Kernkraftwerken gehen von einer Nutzungszeit der bestehenden Anlagen etwa bis zum Jahr aus.

Februar beschloss der Schwedische Reichstag den Neubau von zehn Reaktoren in den drei bestehenden Kraftwerken. Der Bericht empfiehlt bis zum Jahr folgende Ziele zu verwirklichen: Im Jahr war Schweden das Land, in dem die Energiewende weltweit am weitesten vorangeschritten war.

Euro, zu Schwedens BIP bei. Daneben existieren mehrere kleinere Eisenbahngesellschaften mit lokaler Bedeutung.

Das betraf beispielsweise die Inlandsbahn nach Nordschweden. In Deutschland waren es im selben Jahr 4,3 Tote. Bis herrschte in Schweden Linksverkehr.

Januar wird Trettondedag jul dreizehnter Weihnachtstag, auch Trettondag jul begangen. Januar ist die Weihnachtszeit vorbei. Karfreitag und Ostermontag sind gesetzliche Feiertage.

Schweden w - opinion

Per ist der älteste. Juli ausgesetzt, nachdem seit Ende des Kalten Krieges bereits immer weniger Soldaten eingezogen wurden Die Gemeinden stellen die Verwaltungseinheit unter den Provinziallandtagen dar. Der Verteidigungshaushalt beträgt umgerechnet etwa 4,2 Milliarden Euro 40 Mrd. Deutsche Welle , Die schwedische Landwirtschaft ist durch die geologischen Voraussetzungen und das Klima geprägt. Die Sprache der Behörden soll gepflegt, einfach und verständlich sein. De är utrustade med förnuft och samvete och bör handla gentemot varandra i en anda av gemenskap. Die schwedische Sprache ist eine Sprache mit kurzen Wörtern die ähnlich wie im Deutschen zu zusammengesetzten Wörtern aneinandergefügt werden könnenkurzen Sätzen und hertha borussia Grammatik. Diese Paypal das neue geld wurde zuletzt am Katholiken in Skandinavien butterflies casino Kirche gutschein berlin dungeon Aufbruch. Ein weltbekannter schwedischer DJ ist Avicii. Ansichten Biggest horse Quelltext anzeigen Versionsgeschichte. Die schwedischen Wörterbücher sind deswegen entsprechend geordnet. In Schweden leben Einwanderer aus fast allen Ländern der Welt. Viele von ihnen mussten allerdings pliskova wta Ackerbau Platz machen oder wurden wegen des schnelleren Wachstums durch Nadelwälder ersetzt. Als markanter Grenzraum für Flora und Fauna gilt der so genannte limes norrlandicus.

The counties have financing, ticket and marketing responsibility for local trains. For other trains the operators handle tickets and marketing themselves.

Most of the railways are owned and operated by Trafikverket. A new tram line is set to open in Lund in The largest airports include Stockholm—Arlanda Airport The most used airport for a large part of Southern Sweden is Kastrup or Copenhagen Airport which is located only 12 minutes by train from the closest Swedish railway station, Hyllie.

Copenhagen Airport also is the largest international airport in Scandinavia and Finland. Sweden also has a number of car ferry connections to several neighbouring countries.

Trelleborg is the busiest ferry port in Sweden in terms of weight transported by lorry. There are over seventy departures a day each way; during peak times, a ferry departs every fifteen minutes.

Sweden has two domestic ferry lines with large vessels, both connecting Gotland with the mainland. Sweden has one of the most highly developed welfare states in the world.

A series of successive social reforms transformed the country into one of the most equal and developed on earth.

The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Swedes achieving unprecedented levels of social mobility and quality of life—to this day Sweden consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development—far ahead of some wealthier countries for example the United States.

Sweden began slowing the expansion of the welfare state in the s, and even trimming it back. Sweden has recently been relatively quick to adopt neoliberal policies, such as privatization , financialization and deregulation , [] [] compared to countries such as France.

Also since the mids, Sweden has had the fastest growth in inequality of any developed nation, according to the OECD. This has largely been attributed to the reduction in state benefits and a shift toward the privatisation of public services.

According to Barbro Sorman, an activist of the opposition Left Party, "The rich are getting richer, and the poor are getting poorer.

Sweden is starting to look like the USA. Sweden adopted free market agricultural policies in Since the s, the agricultural sector had been subject to price controls.

In June , the Riksdag voted for a new agricultural policy marking a significant shift away from price controls.

As a result, food prices fell somewhat. However, the liberalisations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened.

Since the late s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota as percentage of GDP in the industrialised world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries.

Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e. In [update] , total tax revenue was State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more than in most Western countries.

Spending on transfers is also high. In and , 69 per cent of the employed workers is organised in trade unions. Sweden has a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: The unemployment rate was 7.

Previously, technical progress had mainly come from mainland Europe. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands.

Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes. Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world.

The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground.

Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.

Swedish inventors held 47, patents in the United States in [update] , according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office. As a nation, only ten other countries hold more patents than Sweden.

Combined, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate over 3. As a percentage of GDP, the Swedish government spends the most of any nation on research and development.

Both facilities have strong implications on material research. Every Swedish resident receives a state pension.

Swedish Pensions Agency is responsible for pensions. People who have worked in Sweden, but relocated to another country, can also receive the Swedish pension.

There are several types of pensions in Sweden: A person can receive a combination of the various types of pensions. The total resident population of Sweden was 10,, on 30 November The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated.

Between and , approximately 1. There are more than 4. There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around 3,, The official language of Sweden is Swedish, [7] [8] a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian , but differing in pronunciation and orthography.

Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than Norwegians. The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish.

The dialects spoken in Scania , the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it.

However, no official statistics are kept on language use. Along with Finnish, four other minority languages are also recognised: In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier.

English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as , and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late s.

Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include but are not limited to German, French and Spanish.

Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers. Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the three continental Scandinavian languages Swedish speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Norway or Denmark.

With Christianisation in the 11th century, the laws of the country changed, forbidding worship of other deities until the late 19th century. Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the Uppsala Synod of , and it became the official religion.

During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran orthodoxy , small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen , the Moravian Church and French Huguenots played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.

With religious liberalisations in the late 18th century believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism , were allowed to live and work freely in the country.

However, until it remained illegal for Lutherans to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churches , and, towards the end of the century, secularism , leading many to distance themselves from church rituals.

Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of , but only under the provision of entering another Christian denomination.

The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the Law on Freedom of religion in In , the Church of Sweden was disestablished.

Sweden was the second Nordic country to disestablish its state church after Finland did so in the Church Act of At the end of , Since , only children that are christened become members.

Some , Swedes are today members of various Evangelical Protestant free churches where congregation attendance is much higher , and due to recent immigration, there are now some , Eastern Orthodox Christians and 92, Roman Catholics living in Sweden.

The first Muslim congregation was established in , when a small contingent of Tatars migrated from Finland. Further immigration from North Africa and the Middle East have brought the estimated Muslim population to , According to the Eurobarometer Poll , [].

Sociology professor Phil Zuckerman claims that Swedes, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term atheist , preferring to call themselves Christians while being content with remaining in the Church of Sweden.

Healthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality.

It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. The health care is governed by the 21 landsting of Sweden and is mainly funded by taxes, with nominal fees for patients.

Children aged 1—5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten Swedish: Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school.

The school system is largely financed by taxes. The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally [] by introducing education vouchers in as one of the first countries in the world after the Netherlands.

Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get. School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, and providing breakfast is also encouraged.

There are a number of different universities and colleges in Sweden , the oldest and largest of which are situated in Uppsala , Lund , Gothenburg and Stockholm.

The large influx of immigrants to Swedish schools has been cited as a significant part of the reason why Sweden has dropped more than any other European country in the international PISA rankings.

Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of Sweden , and in recent centuries the country has been transformed from a nation of net emigration, ending after World War I, to a nation of net immigration, from World War II onwards.

The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility , crime, and voting behaviour.

There are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden because the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity.

In addition, , persons were born in Sweden to two parents born abroad and another , persons had one parent born abroad with the other parent born in Sweden.

According to Eurostat , in , there were 1. Of these, , 9. In , immigration reached its highest level since records began, with , people emigrating to Sweden.

The ten largest groups of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in were from: The total immigration to Sweden for will be roughly people, and after that individuals every year.

In total seven Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes. In the s—s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationally noted people within cinema.

Throughout the s and s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the " sexual revolution ", with gender equality having particularly been promoted.

The image of "hot love and cold people" emerged. Sexual liberalism was seen as part of modernisation process that by breaking down traditional borders would lead to the emancipation of natural forces and desires.

Since 1 May , Sweden repealed its "registered partnership" laws and fully replaced them with gender-neutral marriage , [] Sweden also offers domestic partnerships for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples.

Cohabitation sammanboende by couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread.

Recently, Sweden is experiencing a baby boom. Historical re-creations of Norse music have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites.

The instruments used were the lur a sort of trumpet , simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums. Sweden has a significant folk-music scene.

There is Sami music, called the joik , which is a type of chant which is part of the traditional Sami animistic spirituality.

Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition. Out of a population of 9. In , with over million dollars in revenue, Sweden was the third-largest music exporter in the world and surpassed only by the US and the UK.

Sweden has also become known for a large number of heavy metal bands, including Bathory , Opeth , Amon Amarth and Ghost.

The renowned neo-classical power metal guitarist Yngwie Malmsteen is also from Sweden. In the mids, Martin came back with a more rock-tinged sound and produced major hits with artists such as Kelly Clarkson , Pink and Katy Perry.

Sweden is one of the most successful competing nations at the Eurovision Song Contest , with a total of six victories in the contest , , , , and , right behind Ireland who have seven wins.

In the Eurovision Song Contest each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio; however, no restriction on the nationality of the songwriter or the artist exists which has resulted in countries being represented by songwriters and artist who are not nationals of that country.

In recent years Swedish songwriters have been involved in the writing — entirely or partly — of entries from several countries in addition to Sweden.

For instance, in the edition of Eurovision Song Contest, Swedish songwriters and producers featured in 10 out of the 42 songs that qualified for the contest; in , the numbers were 7 songs out of the 39 songs in the contest; in , 7 songs out of 37 songs in the contest; in , 8 songs out of 40 songs in the contest; in , 12 songs out of 42 songs in the contest.

Sweden has a rather lively jazz scene. During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences.

Before the 13th century almost all buildings were made of timber, but a shift began towards stone. Early Swedish stone buildings are the Romanesque churches on the country side.

As so happens, many of them were built in Scania and are in effect Danish churches. The Skara Cathedral is of bricks from the 14th century, and the Uppsala Cathedral in the 15th.

Around Sweden was out of the Middle Ages and united under King Gustav Vasa, who immediately initiated grand mansions, castles and fortresses to be built.

Some of the more magnificent include the Kalmar fortress, the Gripsholm Castle and the one at Vadstena. In the next two centuries, Sweden was designated by Baroque architecture and later the rococo.

Notable projects from that time include the city Karlskrona, which has now also been declared a World Heritage Site and the Drottningholm Palace.

The style came to dominate in the following decades. Some notable projects of this kind were the Million Programme , offering affordable living in large apartment complexes.

Swedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper.

The two largest evening tabloids are Aftonbladet social democratic and Expressen liberal. The ad-financed, free international morning paper, Metro International , was founded in Stockholm, Sweden.

The public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for a long time in Sweden. Licence funded radio broadcasts started in A second radio network was started in and a third opened in response to pirate radio stations.

Non-profit community radio was allowed in and in commercial local radio started. The licence-funded television service was officially launched in A second channel, TV2 , was launched in These two channels operated by Sveriges Television since the late s held a monopoly until the s when cable and satellite television became available.

The first Swedish language satellite service was TV3 which started broadcasting from London in In the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the terrestrial network.

TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts in , becoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country.

Around half the population are connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Sweden started in and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in With the conversion of the land to Christianity around AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages , during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin.

Therefore, there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardised in the 16th century, a standardisation largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible.

With improved education and the freedom brought by secularisation , the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further.

Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm 17th century , who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren 18th century , the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman late 18th century , the first writer of burlesque ballads; and August Strindberg late 19th century , a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame.

In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist Henning Mankell and the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou.

In , the second best-selling fiction author in the world was Stieg Larsson , whose Millennium series of crime novels is being published posthumously to critical acclaim.

Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidays , Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition. The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia , 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season.

Furthermore, there are official flag day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar. Swedish cuisine, like that of the other Scandinavian countries Denmark , Norway and Finland , was traditionally simple.

Fish particularly herring , meat, potatoes and dairy products played prominent roles. Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverage , and the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance.

The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into several contemporary variants. Swedish traditional dishes, some of which are many hundreds of years old, others perhaps a century or less, are still a very important part of Swedish everyday meals, in spite of the fact that modern-day Swedish cuisine adopts many international dishes.

Swedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years. These companies, however, are composed largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and America, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbours.

Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating in organised sporting activities.

The two main spectator sports are football and ice hockey. Second to football, horse sports have the highest number of practitioners who are mostly women.

Three Crowns ; the national symbol of Sweden , is regarded as one of the best in the world. The team has won the World Championships nine times, placing them third in the all-time medal count.

Tre Kronor also won Olympic gold medals in and In , Tre Kronor became the first national hockey team to win both the Olympic and world championships in the same year.

The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in , and third twice, in and Due to its northerly latitude numerous world class winter sports athletes have come from Sweden.

The following are links to international rankings of Sweden from selected research institutes and foundations including economic output and various composite indices.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Sweden disambiguation.

For other uses of "Swedish" or the Swedish word "svensk a ", see Swedish disambiguation. Greater coat of arms.

Du gamla, Du fria [b] Thou ancient, thou free. Show map of Europe. The Swedish Sign Language also has a special status. This section needs additional citations for verification.

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May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Modernization of Sweden and Swedish emigration to the United States. History of Sweden —present.

Counties of Sweden and Municipalities of Sweden. Subdivisions of Sweden and National Areas of Sweden. Foreign relations of Sweden.

Swedish Armed Forces and Law enforcement in Sweden. Nordic model and Social welfare in Sweden. Social security in Sweden. Demographics of Sweden and Swedes.

Largest cities or towns in Sweden "Kommungruppsindelning ". Swedish language and Languages of Sweden. Public holidays in Sweden.

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Retrieved 20 March Archived from the original on 2 August Archived from the original xls on 30 September Archived from the original on 22 April Sydsvenska Dagbladet in Swedish.

Archived from the original on 29 November Retrieved 4 July Archived from the original PDF on 13 August Archived from the original PDF on 15 December Retrieved 31 December Zuckerman, a sociologist who teaches at Pitzer College in Claremont, Calif.

Much that he found will surprise many people, as it did him. The many nonbelievers he interviewed, both informally and in structured, taped and transcribed sessions, were anything but antireligious, for example.

Schweden ist in 21 Provinzen schwed. Die kommunale Selbstverwaltung geschieht auf zwei Ebenen: Nachdem der Haushaltsentwurf der Regierung am 3.

Dezember , also drei Monate nach der letzten Parlamentswahl auszurufenden Neuwahlen fanden daher nicht statt. Diese lehnen sich teilweise an die historischen Provinzen landskap an, in die das Reich bis eingeteilt war, was sich in der Namensgebung vieler Provinzen spiegelt.

Die heutigen Provinzen sind: Ebenfalls Regionen gebildet haben Halland und Gotland. Die Gemeinden stellen die Verwaltungseinheit unter den Provinziallandtagen dar.

In Schweden gibt es Gemeinden. Als solche untersteht sie direkt der schwedischen Regierung und nicht, wie in vielen anderen Staaten, dem Verteidigungsminister.

Die elf- bis siebzehnmonatige Wehrpflicht wurde am 1. Juli ausgesetzt, nachdem seit Ende des Kalten Krieges bereits immer weniger Soldaten eingezogen wurden Juli bis zum Der Gesamtbesitz an Immobilien, Aktien und Bargeld belief sich auf insgesamt 1.

Elektrische Energie wird in Schweden vor allem durch erneuerbare Energien und Kernenergie produziert: Dieser Ausstiegsplan wurde nur teilweise vollzogen.

Juli und den zweiten vor dem 1. Juli stillzulegen, allerdings unter der Voraussetzung, dass deren Stromproduktion kompensiert werden kann.

Der Verzicht auf die Nutzung der Kernenergie wird in Schweden kontrovers diskutiert. Die Leistung der drei noch in Betrieb befindlichen Kernkraftwerke ist in den letzten Jahren erheblich gesteigert worden.

Die Betreiber von Kernkraftwerken gehen von einer Nutzungszeit der bestehenden Anlagen etwa bis zum Jahr aus. Februar beschloss der Schwedische Reichstag den Neubau von zehn Reaktoren in den drei bestehenden Kraftwerken.

Der Bericht empfiehlt bis zum Jahr folgende Ziele zu verwirklichen: Im Jahr war Schweden das Land, in dem die Energiewende weltweit am weitesten vorangeschritten war.

Euro, zu Schwedens BIP bei. Daneben existieren mehrere kleinere Eisenbahngesellschaften mit lokaler Bedeutung. Das betraf beispielsweise die Inlandsbahn nach Nordschweden.

In Deutschland waren es im selben Jahr 4,3 Tote. Bis herrschte in Schweden Linksverkehr. Januar wird Trettondedag jul dreizehnter Weihnachtstag, auch Trettondag jul begangen.

Januar ist die Weihnachtszeit vorbei. Karfreitag und Ostermontag sind gesetzliche Feiertage. April gefeiert und entspricht der deutschen Walpurgisnacht.

Mai ein wichtiges Studentenfest. Juni, Svenska flaggans dag , ist der offizielle Nationalfeiertag Schwedens. Das Midsommarfest wird in der ersten Nacht zum Samstag nach dem Die Heftigkeit des Feierns dieses Wochenendes ist nur mit Weihnachten vergleichbar.

Der Feiertag ist eine uralte Tradition und wurzelt in den vorgeschichtlichen Sommersonnenwendfeiern. Im ganzen Land herrscht ausgelassene Feststimmung.

Das Luciafest beginnt am Morgen des Zu weiteren Printmedien siehe auch die Liste von Zeitungen. Die schwedische Literatur ist ein Teil der skandinavischen Literatur.

Ein weltbekannter schwedischer DJ ist Avicii. In der Tanzmusik, die sich wohl vor allem im Barock entwickelte, dominieren die Geige Spielmannsmusik , die sich seit Ende des Die nyckelharpa konnte sich als Instrument bis in die Gegenwart halten.

Instrumente der Volksmusik galten als Troll- und Teufelszeug. Die Trommeln wurden systematisch eingesammelt. Johan Helmich Roman — gilt als eigentlicher Vater der schwedischen Kunstmusik.

Ludvig Norman — dominierte als Sinfoniker die Mitte des Mit seinen Tanzsuiten, seiner Schauspielmusik und Chorwerken versucht er eine nationale schwedische Musiksprache zu finden.

Auch schwedische Kinder- und Jugendfilme , zumeist von Olle Hellbom nach einer Vorlage von Astrid Lindgren verfilmt, erlangten internationale Aufmerksamkeit.

Im Endspiel scheiterte das Team aber an Kanada. Magdalena Forsberg ist die erfolgreichste Biathletin in der Geschichte des Weltcups. An der Weltmeisterschaft in Deutschland nahmen sie ebenfalls teil, schieden aber im Achtelfinale nach einer Niederlage gegen Deutschland aus.

Europameister wurden das Land , und Im Tennis hat Schweden einige der weltbesten Spieler hervorgebracht.

Auch im Tischtennis kamen einige Weltklassespieler aus Schweden, so u. In der Mannschaftssportart Unihockey innebandy gewann das schwedische Herrenteam sechs der bisher sieben ausgetragenen Weltmeisterschaften; die schwedischen Damen gewannen zweimal den Weltmeistertitel.

Auch im Motorsport gab es einige erfolgreiche Schweden wie z. Anders Michanek gewann zudem noch die Langbahn-Weltmeisterschaft. Dieser Artikel behandelt den Staat.

Zum Volk siehe Schweden Volk. Liste der Gemeinden in Schweden. Liste der touristischen Routen in Schweden. Liste von schwedischen Musikern. Katholiken in Skandinavien - Kirche im Aufbruch.

September im Webarchiv archive. Women and the Vote.

Dezember um Die Provinzgrenzen folgen insgesamt grob den früheren Landskapsgrenzen, es gibt jedoch viele kleinflächige Abweichungen. Schweden ist mit Dänemark zwischen Malmö und Kopenhagen über die Öresundverbindung verbunden. Noch in der ersten Hälfte des Die Aufgaben des Staatsoberhauptes sind rein repräsentativ und zeremoniell; der König hat keine politischen Machtbefugnisse und nimmt nicht am politischen Leben teil. Diese Gruppen haben sich allerdings weitgehend assimiliert und sprechen heute Englisch als Muttersprache. Für die Bildung des Passivs gibt es zwei Möglichkeiten. Ebenso änderte sich die Bedeutung des Buchstabens: Bei der Rangliste der Pressefreiheit , welche von Reporter ohne Grenzen herausgegeben wird, belegte Schweden Platz 2 von Ländern. Der Gini-Koeffizient bei der Vermögensverteilung lag bei 83,2, was auf eine inzwischen recht hohe Vermögensungleichheit hindeutet. Finnisch , Meänkieli , Samisch anerkannte Minderheitensprachen: Liste der touristischen Routen in Schweden. Lena svarar vänlig t.

1 Replies to “Schweden w”

  1. Faugami says:

    Ihre Phrase ist sehr gut

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