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In the absence of oxygen, the citric acid cycle ceases. Instead of transferring the generated NADH, a malate dehydrogenase enzyme converts oxaloacetate to malate , which is translocated to the mitochondrial matrix.
A transaminase converts the oxaloacetate to aspartate for transport back across the membrane and into the intermembrane space. In oxidative phosphorylation, the passage of electrons from NADH and FADH 2 through the electron transport chain pumps protons out of the mitochondrial matrix and into the intermembrane space.
This pumping generates a proton motive force that is the net effect of a pH gradient and an electric potential gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Most of the ATP synthesized in the mitochondria will be used for cellular processes in the cytosol; thus it must be exported from its site of synthesis in the mitochondrial matrix.
However, it is also necessary to transport phosphate into the mitochondrion; the phosphate carrier moves a proton in with each phosphate, partially dissipating the proton gradient.
After completing glycolysis, the Citric Acid Cycle, electrons transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation, approximately ATP are produced per glucose.
In the presence of air and various cofactors and enzymes, fatty acids are converted to acetyl-CoA. The pathway is called beta-oxidation.
Dozens of ATP equivalents are generated by the beta-oxidation of a single long acyl chain. The amount of reduced cytochrome c available is directly related to the amounts of other substrates:.
Ketone bodies can be used as fuels, yielding 22 ATP and 2 GTP molecules per acetoacetate molecule when oxidized in the mitochondria. Ketone bodies are transported from the liver to other tissues, where acetoacetate and beta -hydroxybutyrate can be reconverted to acetyl-CoA to produce reducing equivalents NADH and FADH 2 , via the citric acid cycle.
Acetoacetate in low concentrations is taken up by the liver and undergoes detoxification through the methylglyoxal pathway which ends with lactate.
Acetoacetate in high concentrations is absorbed by cells other than those in the liver and enters a different pathway via 1,2-propanediol.
Though the pathway follows a different series of steps requiring ATP, 1,2-propanediol can be turned into pyruvate. Fermentation is the metabolism of organic compounds in the absence of air.
It involves substrate-level phosphorylation in the absence of a respiratory electron transport chain. The equation for the oxidation of glucose to lactic acid is:.
Anaerobic respiration is respiration in the absence of O 2. Prokaryotes can utilize a variety of electron acceptors.
These include nitrate , sulfate , and carbon dioxide. ATP can also be synthesized through several so-called "replenishment" reactions catalyzed by the enzyme families of nucleoside diphosphate kinases NDKs , which use other nucleoside triphosphates as a high-energy phosphate donor, and the ATP: In plants, ATP is synthesized in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast.
The process is called photophosphorylation. The "machinery" is similar to that in mitochondria except that light energy is used to pump protons across a membrane to produce a proton-motive force.
ATP synthase then ensues exactly as in oxidative phosphorylation. The total quantity of ATP in the human body is about 0.
A human will typically use up his or her body weight of ATP over the course of the day. ATP is involved signal transduction by serving as substrate for kinases, enzymes that transfer phosphate groups.
Kinases are the most common ATP-binding proteins. They share a small number of common folds. ATP is also a substrate of adenylate cyclase , most commonly in G protein-coupled receptor signal transduction pathways and is transformed to second messenger , cyclic AMP, which is involved in triggering calcium signals by the release of calcium from intracellular stores.
The process is promoted by RNA polymerases. The coupling reaction proceeds in two steps:. Transporting chemicals out of a cell against a gradient is often associated with ATP hydrolysis.
Transport is mediated by ATP binding cassette transporters. The human genome encodes 48 ABC transporters, that are used for exporting drugs, lipids, and other compounds.
Cells secrete ATP to communicate with other cells in a process called purinergic signalling. ATP serves as a neurotransmitter in many parts of the nervous system, modulates cilliary beating, affects vascular oxygen supply etc.
ATP is either secreted directly across the cell membrane through channel proteins   or is pumped into vesicles  which then fuse with the membrane.
Biochemistry laboratories often use in vitro studies to explore ATP-dependent molecular processes. ATP analogs are also used in X-ray crystallography to determine a protein structure in complex with ATP, often together with other substrates.
Enzyme inhibitors of ATP-dependent enzymes such as kinases are needed to examine the binding sites and transition states involved in ATP-dependent reactions.
In crystallographic studies, hydrolysis transition states are modeled by the bound vanadate ion. Caution is warranted in interpreting the results of experiments using ATP analogs, since some enzymes can hydrolyze them at appreciable rates at high concentration.
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Citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Calculation of the true concentrations of species present in mixtures of associating ions".
An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals 13th ed. Bioenergetics 3 3rd ed.